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WaterOperator.org Blog

Articles in support of small community water and wastewater operators.

Focus on Apprenticeship Programs

Focus on Apprenticeship Programs
It is no secret that drinking water and wastewater utilities are facing a shortage of workers due to job growth and the retirement of the baby boomer generation. Nationwide, over 30-50% of the water workforce is expected to leave the industry in the next decade due to just retirements alone. However, some states, and especially those with a large percentage of smaller, rural systems such as Idaho, face even more serious shortages.

To make matters worse, it isn't always easy for new folks to get a foot in the door. High school graduates may not be aware of the water industry jobs available in their own communities, and even if they become aware, it can take a significant investment of on-the-job experience and education to obtain the proper knowledge and licensure to become an operater.

This is why many state & local governments, community colleges, utilities and water organizations have been collaborating to develop apprenticeship training programs across the country. For example, Indiana Alliance of Rural Water runs an apprentice program as part of a larger NRWA water sector apprenticeship initiative. Their apprentices train alongside experienced technicians while earning a entry-level wage, all in the interest of creating a more robust workforce for the state.


Another water organization, the Water Environment Association, has recently been collaborating with the City of Baltimore to train young people for the water industry. The Baltimore City Water Industry Career Mentoring Program, now in its third year, is an eight-month program for 18-24 year olds that provides water industry career exploration, worksite tours and job shadowing, connections with a career coach/mentor, a summer job at Department of Public Works, and opportunities to interview for full-time, entry-level positions.

Other recent initiatives attempt to recruit workers even before they graduate from high school. A youth apprenticeship program sponsored in part by New Water in Green Bay, WI, offers students the opportunity to gain valuable work experience and insights into the wastewater industry while still attending high school. NEW Water collaborates with the Greater Green Bay Chamber, Northwest Technical College and area school districts for this program.

More and more municipalities are also responding to the need to plan for their futures via apprenticeship programs. The city of Prestonsburg, KY, for example, has recently announced the creation of a 3-year apprenticeship program. Their program partners with a local community college to reduce the time it takes to become a certified water or wastewater treatment operator, giving the city a competitive edge in the race to replace their retiring operators.

Finally, the rise in the need for, and popularity of, apprenticeship programs underscores the importance of continuous monitoring to ensure that apprenticeship outcomes are measuring up to expectations. According to the LA Times, an audit of the apprentice program for Los Angeles' Department of Water and Power revealed that only 51% of those enrolled actually graduated, and those with the highest level of training were being recruited elsewhere.

Interested in learning about apprenticeship programs in your state? The American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation each have large and active job banks that are updated daily. You can type "apprentice" as a key word to find some of the opportunities out there.

EPA Releases Preventive Maintenance Tools for Small Systems

EPA Releases Preventive Maintenance Tools for Small Systems
USEPA has released two new/updated interactive tools to help small systems retain and organize important operator knowledge as well as keep track of regular operation and maintenance tasks. In this way, when an operator takes a vacation, retires, or leaves a system, important knowledge about the system is preserved for those taking his or her place. 

The first tool to be released is an updated version of EPA's popular Preventive Maintenance Card File tool. This 857-page easy-to-access electronic version can be tailored to a system's needs. It includes fillable pdf logs for each month as well as logs for common daily, weekly and monthly tasks. In addition, it can provide detailed information about maintenance and operation, source water, emergencies, security, treatment processes, monitoring/sampling, storage, distribution, rules/regulations, operator certification, customer complaints, technology, supplies, important people and more.

The tool can be downloaded in its entirety as a zip file, or you can download individual months/files. If your system prefers a printed format, the logs can be printed out or you can opt to print out the original 2004 Preventive Maintenance Card File for Small Public Water Systems here.

The second new tool, piloted last summer, is the Knowledge Retention Tool Spreadsheet for Small Water Systems, found here. This tool also captures site-specific information to help systems maintain water quality in times of transition, but in a spreadsheet format. Tabs providing information on source water, technology, certification, neighboring utilities, suppliers, distribution info and more provide critical information in a quick and easy to read format, all in one place. The spreadsheet also includes a daily production well log, conversion tables and flushing/backflow/valve-exercising schedules.


In a recent webinar featuring these resources, Melinda Norris from Idaho Rural Water talked about how she has seen utility records written on walls and left on dusty barn shelves, creating situations where years of knowledge are at risk of being lost. For her, theses new tools will increase access and encourage operators to record and preserve critical information for newly hired operators or just for those needing help on a daily basis. 

These tools were developed by the EPA's Workforce Group to address an identified critical area of need for small systems: preventing the loss of years of accumulated system knowledge when an operator retires or leaves a system.

Free Test Prep Training Resources for Operators

Free Test Prep Training Resources for Operators

Are you looking for FREE resources to help you study for upcoming certification/recertification or certification upgrade exams? Are you looking for ways to gain or deepen your knowledge about O&M issues, new treatment technologies or distribution strategies? Look no further! WaterOperator.org has a whole collection of up-to-date, helpful small system manuals and training materials to help you, whatever the reason. Check out these recent finds:

  • Basics for Small Water Systems in Oregon Manual - This 155-page manual from the Oregon Health Authority provides a series of fact-sheets of essential information and considerations for small system operators in Oregon. Fact-sheet topics include: Basic Responsibilities of Water Suppliers, Drinking Water Source Protection, Identifying and Correcting Significant Deficiencies, Identifying and Resolving Cross-Connections, Sampling & Reporting, Sampling and Reporting Requirements for Small Groundwater Systems, Public Notice Requirements, Consumer Confidence Reports, Overview of Disinfection and Other Water Treatment Methods, Shock Chlorination, Leak Prevention & Repair, Facility O & M, Storage Tanks and more.

  • Surface Water Treatment Operator Certification Manual - This 321-page certification manual from the Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection provides operators with the basic knowledge required to manage surface water drinking water systems. This manual provides 15 chapters of the surface water treatment operator certification course.

  • Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Certification Manual - This 261-page certification manual from Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection provides operators with the basic knowledge required to manage drinking water systems. The manual is comprised of 10 chapters concerning wastewater treatment plant operation and maintenance. Topic include: the Certified Plant Operator, KPDES Permitting Program, Biology, Preliminary Treatment, Physical & Biological Treatment Processes, Digesters, Disinfection, Flow Measurement, Pumps and Motors, Hazards and Regulations.

  • Introduction to Small Water Systems: A Course for Level I Operators, Chapter 1. - You can find all 13 chapters of this course on the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation website. Chapter topics include Introduction to Distribution Systems, Basic Electricity and Motor Controls, Regulations and Monitoring, and Waterworks Math. 

  • Introduction to Water & Wastewater Treatment Technology - This course from Mountain Empire Community College includes 19 lessons tracing the flow of water from the source through treatment, storage, distribution, use, waste collection, treatment and discharge back into the environment.

  • The WaterSifu website - This website's moto is "turning ordinary water workers into water black belts" and includes 28 free podcasts, a companion guide, YouTube videos, and more. Created by a water operator, this is a fun go-to resource for studying to pass your water treatment or distribution exam. One helpful video points out the six most common mistakes people make that stop them from passing their state water treatment/distribution exam.

  • New Mexico Water Systems Operator Certification Study Manual - This manual from the New Mexico Environment Department Utility Operator Certification Program provides study materials up to the Class 4 level of Water Certification. Chapters include Fluoridation, Distribution, Disinfection, Safety, Mathematics, Water Storage and more. 

  • New Mexico Wastewater Systems Operator Certification Study Manual - This manual was created as a tool to assist wastewater systems operators in New Mexico in preparation for taking the New Mexico Collection Systems OperatorSmall Wastewater Systems Operator, and Wastewater Systems Operator certification exams.

  • Class A Training Manual for the Ohio Wastewater Treatment Certification Exam - This 182-page training manual from the Ohio EPA can assist you in becoming proficient in the operation and maintenance of a small wastewater treatment system. Specifically, this training material will focus on the effective operations and maintenance of the extended aeration activated sludge treatment system commonly referred to as a “Package Plant”. The concepts and information presented in this training material have been identified by other successful certified operators of package treatment systems as critical in producing clean water acceptable for discharge into your local waterways; your environment.

  • Five Common Questions on Water Treatment Operator Exams - Questions on drinking water regulations, pumps, chlorination, and lab procedures almost always appear on the test. This video covers these questions to better prepare you for the exam. The video is for operators in the earlier stages of their career, such as the first two certification levels. If you’re at a more advanced level, then this video might simply be a review for you. Other test prep videos from this website include: Water Distribution Operator Certification Exam: 4 Practice Problems and Wastewater Treatment Operator Certification Exam: 4 Practice Problems.

For more certification prep resources, visit our document database and search by the category Certification/Exam Prep. Try narrowing it by your state, or search by "distribution", "drinking water treatment", "wastewater", or "collection system" depending on the kind of exam you're preparing for. (Search without the quote marks though, because they confuse our database!).