rss

WaterOperator.org Blog

Articles in support of small community water and wastewater operators.

Focus on Chemical Feed Control

Focus on Chemical Feed Control

Chemical dosing at the water treatment plant is a critical, but often underrated step in producing safe drinking water. Historically, process control points have focused on the hazards present in incoming source water - with emphasis on the filtration and disinfection steps to minimize microbial risks. But while many hazards do indeed enter the plant with the raw water, it is just as important to identify the multiple risks associated with treating this raw water.   

One significant hazard in the treatment of water at the plant is overfeeding, resulting in discoloration, strong smells, or health hazards at the tap. Some of the most common root causes of overfeeding problems are pump or equipment failures, variations in water temperature, and source water characteristic fluctuations, to name just a few. In addition, bringing new technology online can sometimes trigger an event as well. This is why it is important to carefully document chemical handling and feeding information specific to your system on forms such as this one from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.  

It is also essential to be on top of monitoring, chemical feed math skills and feed pump maintenance in order to correct situations as they arise (not to mention how to use activated carbon or sulfur dioxide to correct water quality issues). This resource from MASSDEP lists immediate action levels for water treatment plant chemicals. This tool from Missouri Rural Water can help you quickly size a chemical feed pump. This NCSE Tech Brief can help you calibrate a liquid feed pump. In addition, overfeed alarm systems are another solid choice for avoiding this problem. 

Finally, if and when an overfeed occurs in your system, prompt reporting can help speed up remediation. The Minnesota Department of Health provides this emergency response guide to its community PWSs in the case an event is affecting functionality or water quality. Learning who to call for help sometimes is the most difficult step in an emergency response situation, so preparing ahead can save you critical time and effort!  

*WaterOperator.org staff member Phil Vella contributed to this post.

Featured Videos: Invisible Heroes, Minnesota's Drinking Water Providers

This week's featured videos are part of a new series produced by the Minnesota Department of Health showcasing the "invisible heroes" of Minnesota's drinking water supply. In these 3-minute videos, small town water system heroes face and overcome a variety of challenges including contamination, source water shortages and aging infrastructure in order to provide safe, reliable water for their communities. Three of the videos feature small or very small water systems and the innovative strategies and partnerships they have developed to overcome their challenges. 

The first video looks at how the tiny community of St. Martin (pop. 350) has become the first town in the state with a biologically active treatment plant in order to effectively respond to high levels of iron and ammonia in their water. 


The next video explains the unique wellhead protection program developed by the City of Worthington, MN (pop. 13,000). In order to protect the City's drinking water wells from contamination, the city, along with partner Pheasants Forever, created the Worthington Wells Wildlife Management Area. 


And finally, here is a video about how the small city of Fairmont, MN (pop. 10,000) sprang into action when faced with increasing nitrate levels. 


What do all three of these smaller systems have in common? They worked collaboratively with the Minnesota Department of Health to ensure their strategies would meet with success! 

Free Test Prep Training Resources for Operators

Free Test Prep Training Resources for Operators

Are you looking for FREE resources to help you study for upcoming certification/recertification or certification upgrade exams? Are you looking for ways to gain or deepen your knowledge about O&M issues, new treatment technologies or distribution strategies? Look no further! WaterOperator.org has a whole collection of up-to-date, helpful small system manuals and training materials to help you, whatever the reason. Check out these recent finds:

  • Basics for Small Water Systems in Oregon Manual - This 155-page manual from the Oregon Health Authority provides a series of fact-sheets of essential information and considerations for small system operators in Oregon. Fact-sheet topics include: Basic Responsibilities of Water Suppliers, Drinking Water Source Protection, Identifying and Correcting Significant Deficiencies, Identifying and Resolving Cross-Connections, Sampling & Reporting, Sampling and Reporting Requirements for Small Groundwater Systems, Public Notice Requirements, Consumer Confidence Reports, Overview of Disinfection and Other Water Treatment Methods, Shock Chlorination, Leak Prevention & Repair, Facility O & M, Storage Tanks and more.

  • Surface Water Treatment Operator Certification Manual - This 321-page certification manual from the Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection provides operators with the basic knowledge required to manage surface water drinking water systems. This manual provides 15 chapters of the surface water treatment operator certification course.

  • Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Certification Manual - This 261-page certification manual from Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection provides operators with the basic knowledge required to manage drinking water systems. The manual is comprised of 10 chapters concerning wastewater treatment plant operation and maintenance. Topic include: the Certified Plant Operator, KPDES Permitting Program, Biology, Preliminary Treatment, Physical & Biological Treatment Processes, Digesters, Disinfection, Flow Measurement, Pumps and Motors, Hazards and Regulations.

  • Introduction to Small Water Systems: A Course for Level I Operators, Chapter 1. - You can find all 13 chapters of this course on the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation website. Chapter topics include Introduction to Distribution Systems, Basic Electricity and Motor Controls, Regulations and Monitoring, and Waterworks Math. 

  • Introduction to Water & Wastewater Treatment Technology - This course from Mountain Empire Community College includes 19 lessons tracing the flow of water from the source through treatment, storage, distribution, use, waste collection, treatment and discharge back into the environment.

  • The WaterSifu website - This website's moto is "turning ordinary water workers into water black belts" and includes 28 free podcasts, a companion guide, YouTube videos, and more. Created by a water operator, this is a fun go-to resource for studying to pass your water treatment or distribution exam. One helpful video points out the six most common mistakes people make that stop them from passing their state water treatment/distribution exam.

  • New Mexico Water Systems Operator Certification Study Manual - This manual from the New Mexico Environment Department Utility Operator Certification Program provides study materials up to the Class 4 level of Water Certification. Chapters include Fluoridation, Distribution, Disinfection, Safety, Mathematics, Water Storage and more. 

  • New Mexico Wastewater Systems Operator Certification Study Manual - This manual was created as a tool to assist wastewater systems operators in New Mexico in preparation for taking the New Mexico Collection Systems OperatorSmall Wastewater Systems Operator, and Wastewater Systems Operator certification exams.

  • Class A Training Manual for the Ohio Wastewater Treatment Certification Exam - This 182-page training manual from the Ohio EPA can assist you in becoming proficient in the operation and maintenance of a small wastewater treatment system. Specifically, this training material will focus on the effective operations and maintenance of the extended aeration activated sludge treatment system commonly referred to as a “Package Plant”. The concepts and information presented in this training material have been identified by other successful certified operators of package treatment systems as critical in producing clean water acceptable for discharge into your local waterways; your environment.

  • Five Common Questions on Water Treatment Operator Exams - Questions on drinking water regulations, pumps, chlorination, and lab procedures almost always appear on the test. This video covers these questions to better prepare you for the exam. The video is for operators in the earlier stages of their career, such as the first two certification levels. If you’re at a more advanced level, then this video might simply be a review for you. Other test prep videos from this website include: Water Distribution Operator Certification Exam: 4 Practice Problems and Wastewater Treatment Operator Certification Exam: 4 Practice Problems.

For more certification prep resources, visit our document database and search by the category Certification/Exam Prep. Try narrowing it by your state, or search by "distribution", "drinking water treatment", "wastewater", or "collection system" depending on the kind of exam you're preparing for. (Search without the quote marks though, because they confuse our database!).

WaterOperator.org Staff Interviews Illinois Small Systems

WaterOperator.org Staff Interviews Illinois Small Systems
This past year, WaterOperator.org program director Steve Wilson and his staff were out and about in rural Illinois talking to water and wastewater operators about their struggles as well as their strategies. The interviews were part of a ISAWWA Small Systems Committee (SCC) initiative to bring to light the significant challenges encountered by small systems across the state. 

The results of these interviews were published as a series of eight articles entitled "Putting the Focus on Small Systems" in the Fall 2017 edition of ISAWWA's Splash magazine. Each article describes the unique challenges encountered by a specific system.

In the small town of Monticello, for instance, water works manager Scott Bailey (shown above with WaterOperator staff member Alison Meanor) describes how he manages an aging distribution system while tackling arsenic compliance issues. And in the small communities of Beason and Chestnut, Chair of the Water District Board Mark Carlin shares how the board proactively reached out to RCAP staff for help with funding much-needed infrastructure improvements. 

Many thanks to the operators, board members, technical assistance providers and government officials who agreed to meet with us and talk about their systems!