Any water or wastewater operator should possess a strong understanding of water hammer and the implications it can have on piping systems. Water hammer , also referred to as hydraulic shock, occurs when there is a sudden change in flow velocity or direction that results in a momentary increase in pressure. If high enough, the pressure can cause damage to pipes, fittings, and valves. An example where water hammer can occur is when an operator rapidly closes a valve halting flow and sending a shockwave through the system. In Jefferson City, MO, operators responding to a ruptured water main created a second break during repairs as a result of water hammer. Pressure surges can also occur through unexpected power outages or equipment failures. Engineers consider several variables when designing piping systems to limit potential for water hammer. Whenever a major change is made to the distribution or collection system, implications for water hammer should be evaluated. This week’s featured video demonstrates how water hammer occurs and what it looks like using 100 feet of clear PVC pipe with an analog and digital pressure gauge. The host explains how engineers can modify the potential for water hammer in piping systems by manipulating the variables that make up the mathematic equation for the pressure profile of a water hammer pulse. Such design parameters include pipe size, recommended operating procures for closing valves, and more. Watch the video to understand how the design considerations for your piping system impact water hammer.